Employment discrimination and sexual harassment against women are common. Is there freedom for trade unions and similar professional or labor organizations? Japan is a multiparty parliamentary democracy. Is there freedom for nongovernmental organizations, particularly those that are engaged in human rights— and governance-related work? Legislative elections in Japan are free and fair. Women remain underrepresented in government.
A government white paper revealed that over 20 percent of companies surveyed had employees working more than 80 hours of overtime a month. Do the people have the right to organize in different political parties or other competitive political groupings of their choice, and is the system free of undue obstacles to the rise and fall of these competing parties or groupings? Access to information legislation allows individuals to request information from government agencies, but in practice the law has not always been implemented effectively. However, some government officials have close relations with business leaders, and retiring bureaucrats often quickly secure high-paying positions with companies that receive significant government contracts. Critics said the law gives the government broad license to conduct surveillance activities and to restrict civil liberties as part of counterterrorism efforts. In March , the Ministry of Education reported more than 60 cases of illicit job placements of recently retired ministry bureaucrats. The Act on the Protection of Specially Designated Secrets went into effect in and allows for unclassified information to be automatically shared with the public. Very few refugees are granted asylum in Japan, with only 20 refugees accepted out of almost 20, asylum applications in In July , a new redistricting law designed to reduce the voting weight disparities between urban and rural districts took effect. Around , ethnic Koreans—mainly the multigenerational descendants of forced laborers brought to Japan before —hold special residential privileges but not Japanese citizenship, and are therefore ineligible to participate in national elections. Is there freedom for trade unions and similar professional or labor organizations? This can create legal complications for, among others, women, and children born out of wedlock or to divorced parents. Access to those in pretrial detention is sometimes limited. Districts will be revised again in after the census is conducted. Are individuals able to exercise the right to own property and establish private businesses without undue interference from state or nonstate actors? The more powerful lower house, the House of Representatives, has members elected to maximum four-year terms. Political rights and civil liberties are generally well respected. In early , active reporting on two scandals involving Prime Minister Abe weakened his popularity; one involved a dubious land deal, and another revolved around the approval of a university department. LGBT people face social stigma and in some cases harassment. The prime minister is the head of government, and is chosen by the freely elected House of Representatives. Do individuals enjoy personal social freedoms, including choice of marriage partner and size of family, protection from domestic violence, and control over appearance? However, press freedom advocates have expressed concern about the Specially Designated Secrets Act, which can allow journalists to be prosecuted for revealing state secrets, even if that information was unknowingly obtained. Police can detain suspects up to 23 days without charge. Outstanding challenges include ethnic and gender-based discrimination, and claims of unduly close relations between government and the business sector. A hate speech law nominally criminalizes discriminatory speech against non-Japanese citizens, but the law is considered weak and difficult to invoke. Are safeguards against official corruption strong and effective?
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