In a case where there is no available room, her husband will sleep outside. Surveys from five countries in the region Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Madagascar, and Nigeria were excluded because they did not include information about HIV testing. In other settings, male business owners and managers exercise authority over female employees, and male school administrators and teachers hold authority over female pupils. Abstract Men's multiple sexual partnerships contribute to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but the social determinants of these relationships remain poorly understood. Women's poverty, in absolute or relative terms, may motivate them to consider forming various types of sexual partnerships with wealthy men Tawfik and Watkins , but some types of wealth may be more relevant in such cases than others. Those who take exception to this view for example, Ahlberg ; Heald generally object to Caldwell's characterization of traditional African societies but appear to share his view of the current situation as being highly permissive with respect to men's sexual behavior. Do the patterns implicate exposure to social control mechanisms? Traditionally, the primary forms of wealth in African societies—cattle, access to agricultural land, and control of domestic and agricultural labor—were generally managed by kinship groups and were not available to individual men for their personal discretionary use Iliffe Beyond men's institutionalized authority over women and their control of economic resources, a third factor may influence their likelihood of having multiple sex partners in sub-Saharan Africa:
Those who are successful in these pursuits may find themselves with cash that they control personally with little accountability to their immediate or extended families. Moreover, theoretical models suggest that the extent of concurrency of multiple partnerships in sexual networks may increase the potential for the aggressive spread of HIV Morris and Kretzschmar ; Halperin and Epstein All DHS surveys of sub-Saharan African countries were included if 1 they were conducted during the period —06; 2 they included a protocol for HIV testing; 3 permission to use the data could be obtained; and 4 sufficient information about the sampling design was available. Observers familiar with the situation agree, however, that in the vast majority of cases, husbands continue to wield wide-ranging authority over their wives in sub-Saharan Africa Adepoju and Mbugua ; Dodoo and Frost This situation may be attributable in part to the focus on women's perspectives that emerged in the early s and that continues to dominate social scientific thinking about HIV in Africa Ankrah ; Carovano ; de Bruyn ; Ulin Accordingly, mathematical models of the population dynamics of HIV typically use the rate of partner change as the key behavioral parameter Anderson Indeed, country-specific reports from this program provide tabulations of men's self-reports of multiple sexual partnerships according to a variety of sociodemographic variables. I think a lot of people have a hard time with the explicit nature of the transactional behavior between men and women. This factor has received relatively little attention in the literature on HIV risk in Africa, perhaps because some prominent observers have suggested that social control mechanisms related to men's sexual behavior are weak or nonexistent in sub-Saharan African societies. The authority of husbands over wives in sub-Saharan African societies is typically established through bridewealth payments and is reinforced by numerous other means, including patrilocal residence and the reliance of wives upon their husbands for access to agricultural land. Prevailing wisdom suggests that men's institutionalized authority over women and their control of economic resources are key facilitators of multiple partnerships in this region. Why can't we have that in Ghana, in Accra? The stories of An African City may present a side of Africa that viewers have never seen before. They didn't realize that there's people in Africa spending money, who have money --you know-- have the means to do these kind of things. People have no idea that this actually exists on the continent and that's what we really want to show. First, by providing an indisputable right of sexual access to one partner, marriage, in a sense, may free resources for example, time, energy, and money that men can use to establish additional partnerships. And so I am interested in some of the push back from that because I don't think that anything we are depicting isn't true. The woman has little or no opinion in the decision making. These factors can be grouped into two broad categories: Caldwell and his colleagues famously argued that few moral or legal restrictions are placed on men's sexual behavior in traditional African societies and that the current situation primarily reflects the persistence of permissive traditional values despite the spread of Islam and Christianity, Western-style education, and other changes. Those who take exception to this view for example, Ahlberg ; Heald generally object to Caldwell's characterization of traditional African societies but appear to share his view of the current situation as being highly permissive with respect to men's sexual behavior. Are men with multiple sex partners concentrated in certain identifiable subgroups defined, for example, by age, marital status, education, or type of employment? First, they are scattered among country-specific reports, making a region-wide picture of the situation arduous to assemble. In other settings, male business owners and managers exercise authority over female employees, and male school administrators and teachers hold authority over female pupils. On "Afropolitan" style vs. The aims of this article, therefore, are to provide a detailed description of the levels and sociodemographic patterns of multiple sexual partnerships among men in several sub-Saharan African countries and to assess the extent to which these patterns are consistent with the prevailing wisdom.
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